picturesque Hereford Inlet Lighthouse, a beacon of safety
and assurance to the 19th century mariners, has become a cherished
landmark for residents and visitors of this seashore resort community.
The Lighthouse is
situated on the south side of the Hereford Inlet,
which leads from the Atlantic Ocean to the famed Intra-Coastal Waterway
linking Maine to Florida. First used by the 17th century whalers to
haul in and butcher their catches, the Inlets use as a haven to
mariners greatly increased as travel and shipping along the coast
became more prevalent.
currents and shifting sandbars near the entrance to the Inlet caused
frequent groundings and shipwrecks. Because of this, in 1849, a Life
Saving Station was constructed along the south bank of the Hereford
Inlet. A second, larger station replaced this in 1871, the time of the
creation of the United States Life Saving Service. As the use of the
Inlet and coastal shipping continued to increase, so did the number of
shipwrecks. It became obvious that a Lighthouse was needed to mark the
mouth of the Inlet.
10, 1872 Congress enacted legislation to finance the purchase of land
and the construction of a fourth order Lighthouse. The site chosen held
a prominent position on the dune area overlooking the approach to the
the uninhabited barrier island on Nov. 8, 1873 and was completed on
March 30, 1874. This wood frame residential style Lighthouse was
designed by the Lighthouse Boards Chief Draftsman, Paul J. Pelz. His
Victorian era design is referred to as Swiss Carpenter Gothic and
also Stick Style
the only Lighthouse like it on the East Coast although it had five
sister lights on the West. Pelz designed Point Fermin, East Brother,
Mare Island and Point Hueneme in California and Point Adams in
Washington State. All of these were almost identical to Hereford and
were built about the same time. Only Point Fermin and East Brother
Paul Pelz would later garner world
wide fame as the designer of the Library of Congress in Washington D.C.
On May 11, 1874 a
Notice to Mariners formally announced the start of
operation of the Light. The fixed white light was located at latitude
39 degrees and longitude 74 degrees, 47 minutes. The tower height is 49
1/2 feet with the light elevation rising to 57 feet above sea level.
The light is visible at a distance of 13 nautical miles.
John Marche was the
first Lighthouse Keeper. He was in the post less
than three months when he drowned when his boat capsized while
returning from the mainland. He was replaced by a young man from Cape
May Court House, Freeling Hysen Hewitt.
Freeling was a
civil war veteran and a former merchant seaman. He would
stay on as the keeper of the Light for the next 45 years . Freeling was
considered a Pioneer of the island and among his many contributions,
held the first formal religious services to occur in the Wildwoods, in
the Lighthouse parlor.
1888, a third larger Bibb #2 style Life Saving Station was constructed
three hundred feet Northwest of the Lighthouse. The Lighthouse Service
and the Life Saving Service were both run by the Department of the
Treasury but were seperate organizations. They were, however, both in
the business of saving lives. The Lighthouse by warning and the Life
Saving Service by rescue.
Hereford stood firm
against the onslaught of the winds, rains, and
tides for 40 years at its original location. A severe storm in August
of 1913 significantly damaged the foundation, requiring it to be moved
westward 150 feet to where it sits today.
In 1915 the Coast
Guard absorbed the duties of the U.S. Life Saving
Service. A larger building was needed and in 1939 the modern Roosevelt
Style Coast Guard Station was constructed. This Station also had a
boathouse and a maintenance garage. These are the white buildings just
north of the Lighthouse. 1939 was also the year that the Coast Guard
took over control of the Lighthouse Service.
For the next 25
years the Hereford lighthouse continued in operation.
By the early 1960s the Coast Guard began to automize many of its
lighthouses. In 1964 this was the fate of Hereford when an automatic
rotating modern optic was placed on an iron skeletal tower behind the
Lighthouse. The Lighthouse was closed as was the Coast Guard Station
next door. The entire property was transferred to the control of the
New Jersey State Marine Police. The Police made use of the Coast Guard
Buildings but the Lighthouse was boarded up and left to deteriorate for
the next 18 years.
through the long and painstaking efforts of Mayor Anthony Catanoso and
his wife Phyllis a lease was signed Whereby the New Jersey Department
of Environmental Protection turns over the stewardship of the
Lighthouse to the City of North Wildwood.
Restoration of the
neglected building was immediately begun. After only
ten months of intense work, on July 1, 1983, a portion of the restored
building was opened to the public. Hundreds of public spirited citizens
who helped raise funds for the restoration and contributed time,
talent, energy and materials were on hand to celebrate the official
reopening of the historic landmark for public use.
In 1986 the modern
automated light was removed from the iron tower and
placed in the Lighthouse lantern room making it a fully functional aid
to navigation once again.
Efforts were then
begun to also create a museum in the Lighthouse. The
interior of the building was furnished with period antiques,
educational displays and lighthouse memorabilia. The 4th order Fresnel
Lens was also restored and placed on display on the 2nd floor of the
A project to
improve the sandy, barren grounds into a park was undertaken by
Superintendent of Parks Steve Murray, who designed the Park along with
its many garden areas.
an authentic restoration of the entire Lighthouse was begun in 1998 and
as with many old, historic structures is always a work in progress.
Grants awarded by the New Jersey Historic Trust and the N.J. Department
of Transportation have helped finance this work.
Lighthouse is listed on both the National and State
Registers of Historic Places. It is also part of the New Jersey Coastal
Keepers Of The Hereford Inlet
John Marche 1874
John Nickerson 1874
Freeling Hewitt 1874-1919
William Hedges 1919-1925
Laura Hedges 1925-1926
Ferdinand Heizman 1926-1939
Robert ONeal 1939-1942
George Baker 1945-1955
Newman Bowden 1955-1959
Bruce Bolon 1960-1961
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
Q. Why doesn't Hereford look like a typical
A. There are many different styles, sizes, color and
building materials of lighthouses.
all depends on when, why and where they were built. Hereford is a
residential style, which means it combines both the keepers house and
the light tower in one structure. It is also a harbor light, not a
major coastal lighthouse. It was built to mark the entrance to the
Q. How tall is the Lighthouse?
A. The height measured from ground level to the top of
the ventilator ball is 57.6'
Q. Is the building still used as a Lighthouse?
A. Yes. Hereford is still a working navigational aide.
Q. How far out to sea can its beacon be seen?
A On a perfectly clear night, 13 nautical miles.
Q. Does anyone live in the Lighthouse?
A. No. The last live-in Coast Guard keeper left in
1961. The light now goes on automatically at dark.
Q. How many steps are there?
Counting from the first step ground level, to the lantern room, there
are 69 steps. Visitors will only count 56 though because the lantern
room is closed to the public.
Q. Is the Lighthouse haunted?
Probably not. A paranormal investigation teams visit and observations
were inconclusive. Those that work there every day think not.
Q. Why isn't the Lighthouse closer to the
The sea coast is constantly changing so some years the Lighthouse is
closer to the water and sometimes its further away. A severe northeast
storm is Sept. 1913, brought crashing ocean waves against Hereford
undermining its foundation. As a result, the building was moved 150
feet west, to where it sits today.
Q. Was the State Police building, next door to
Hereford, once a lighthouse?
A. No, that building was originally a Coast Guard
Station built in 1938. The little room at the top served as a lookout
art courtsey of Donna